Anti parasite natural

élősködő — Translation in English - TechDico

University of Michigan Summary: It's been known for decades that animals such as chimpanzees seek out medicinal herbs to treat their diseases.

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But in recent years, the list of animal pharmacists has grown much longer, and it now appears that the practice of animal self-medication is a lot more widespread than previously thought, according to ecologists.

But in recent years, the list of animal pharmacists has grown much longer, and it now appears that the practice of animal self-medication is a lot more widespread than previously thought, according to a University of Michigan ecologist and his colleagues.

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The fact that moths, ants and fruit flies are now known to self-medicate has profound implications for the ecology and evolution anti parasite natural animal hosts and their parasites, according to Mark Hunter, a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and at the School of Natural Resources and Environment. In addition, because plants remain the most promising source of future pharmaceuticals, studies of animal medication may lead the way in discovering new drugs to relieve human suffering, Hunter and two colleagues wrote in a review article titled "Self-Medication in Animals," to be published online today in the journal Science.

One recent study has suggested that house sparrows and finches add high-nicotine cigarette butts to their nests to reduce mite infestations.

The cereal was not treated to protect against fungal infestations or against insect parasites.

But less attention has been given to the many cases in which animals medicate their offspring or other kin, according to Hunter and his colleagues. Wood ants incorporate an antimicrobial resin from conifer trees into their nests, preventing microbial growth in the colony.

Parasite-infected monarch butterflies protect their offspring against high levels of parasite growth by laying their eggs on anti-parasitic milkweed.

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For one, when animal medication reduces the health of parasites, there should be observable effects on parasite transmission or virulence. For example, when gypsy moth caterpillars consume foliage high in certain toxic compounds, transmission of viruses between the caterpillars is reduced, facilitating moth outbreaks.

In addition, animal medication should affect the evolution of animal immune systems, according to Hunter and his colleagues.

Metrics details Abstract Sex-biassed and age-biassed parasite infections are common in nature, including ectoparasites-vertebrate host systems. We sampled Amur Falcons in Nagaland, India at major roosting sites in We applied generalized linear models with negative binomial distribution and log-link to model the abundance of their two most numerous lice Colpocephalum subzerafae and Degeeriella rufa using the host age category juvenile or adult and wing length, both in interaction with sex, as explanatory variables. The abundance of C. Juveniles were also more infested with D.

Honeybees are known to incorporate antimicrobial resins into their nests. Analysis of the honeybee genome anti parasite natural that they lack many of the immune-system genes of other insects, raising the possibility that honeybees' use of medicine has been partly responsible -- or has compensated -- for a loss of other immune mechanisms.

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The authors also note that the study of animal medication will have direct relevance for human food production. Disease problems in agricultural organisms can worsen when humans interfere with the ability of animals to medicate, they point out. For example, increases in parasitism and disease in honeybees can be linked to selection by beekeepers for reduced resin deposition by their bees.

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A reintroduction of such behavior in managed bee colonies would likely have great benefits for disease management, the authors say. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Journal Reference: J. Lefevre, M. Self-Medication in Animals. Science, ; : DOI:

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